In Colorado, domestic violence is defined by C.R.S. 18-6-800.3 as:
(1) “Domestic violence” means an act or threatened act of violence upon a person with whom the actor is or has been involved in an intimate relationship. “Domestic violence” also includes any other crime against a person, or against property, including an animal, or any municipal ordinance violation against a person, or against property, including an animal, when used as a method of coercion, control, punishment, intimidation, or revenge directed against a person with whom the actor is or has been involved in an intimate relationship
(2) “Intimate relationship” means a relationship between spouses, former spouses, past or present unmarried couples, or persons who are both the parents of the same child regardless of whether the persons have been married or have lived together at any time.
In general, the term interpersonal violence incorporates acts of violence occurring between people with varying degrees of relations such as strangers, acquaintances, friends, neighbors, family members, and intimate partners or ex-partners. One of the primary dynamics in abusive relationships is the assertion of power and control by one person over the other. Domestic violence is a more specific form of violence which is commonly called “intimate partner violence” and involves individuals with a current or previous intimate relationship. While domestic violence has historically been perpetrated mostly by males against females, there are also instances of same-sex partner abuse and female abuse of males.
In most abusive realtionships the behaviors occur more than once and become an established pattern of behaviors often referred to as a “cycle of violence” which may consist of a variety of different types of abuse which include physical, emotional, pyscho
One of the primary dynamics in abusive relationships is the assertion of power and control by one person over the other.
Domestic violence is a relationship between intimate partners in which one individual seeks to assert power and control over the other. Recently, more same-sex partners and male victims of violence perpetrated by women are reporting their victimization. The abuser may use many different types of abuse to assert this power, and the overall framework in which the abuse occurs may follow a pattern called the cycle of violence.
- Cycle of violence: Violent events may occur in a variety of patterns-the victim may experience ongoing, nonstop abuse, or the abuse may stop and start. One pattern of abuse often seen in a violent relationship begins with a tension-building phase, followed by the actual abusive act, and then a calm, making-up phase often called the honeymoon phase.
- The tension-building phase includes increasing anger on the part of the abuser coupled with attempts by the person being abused to avoid violence. On the other hand, the victim may also attempt to bring on the violence to “get it over with.”
- The episode of acute abuse may include various forms of abuse and may occur for an indefinite amount of time.
- The honeymoon phase that follows the abuse often includes both excuses for the abusive episode and expressions of love for the injured party. The abuser may deny the violence or blame his or her actions on their own drunkenness or the behavior or drunkenness of the victim. The abuser may promise that the abuse will never happen again.
- Types of abuse: Domestic abuse is a broad term and involves physical, psychological, economic, and sexual abuse, as well as attempts to manipulate the victim through the use of his or her children. The abuser may also seek to isolate the victim from other people who may provide assistance.
- Physical abuse
- Pulling hair
- Twisting arms
- Using a weapon against you
- Throwing you down
- Psychological abuse
- Making or carrying out threats to do something to hurt you emotionally
- In gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender relationships, threatening to expose (“out”) the victim’s sexual orientation
- Threatening to commit suicide
- Threatening to take away the children
- Threatening to harm the children
- Threatening to harm the family of origin (for example, parents and siblings)
- Threatening to report you to a governmental agency (for example, the Internal Revenue Service and the Immigration and Naturalization Service)
- Threatening to harm pets
- Injuring or killing pets
- Emotional abuse
- Putting you down (for example, commenting about perceived shortcomings, name calling)
- Making you think you are crazy
- Making you feel bad about yourself
- Playing mind games
- Treating you as if you are a servant
- Making all the big decisions
- Controlling what you do (for example, financially; monitoring activities)
- Limiting your access to others
- Controlling your activities outside the home
- Sexual abuse
- Making you do sexual things against your will
- Treating you as if you are a sex object
- Physically attacking the sexual parts of your body
- Using children
- Making you feel guilty about the children
- Using visitation as a way to harass you
- Using the children to give messages
- Preventing you from getting or keeping a job
- Taking your money
- Making you ask for money
- Giving you an allowance
- Physical abuse
Victims of domestic violence may often make efforts to cover up or deny that their abuse for a variety of reasons. The following are examples of behaviors or attributes of domestic violence victims that be observed by others.
- seems afraid or overly anxious to please partner
- agrees with everything partner says and does
- mentions temper, jealousy or possessiveness (but never discloses or offers abuse)
- has limited knowledge or access to credit cards, money, and/or the car
- appears depressed, anxious or suicidal
- their abuser answers all questions, victim often looks to abuser for answers
- victim exhibits poor eye contact and lack of self-confidence
- presence of head and neck bruises, scrapes, or other injuries (50% of all DV injuries occur on this region of the body)
- victim wears clothes that could be used to hide injuries (ex: turtle neck on a hot day, sunglasses inside, etc.)